Infinitive adalah suatu kata kerja dasar dalam bahasa inggris. Infinitive dapat dinyatakan dengan menggunakan partikel to (to see, to go, to make, etc.) ataupun tanpa partikel atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Bare Infinitive.
Penggunaan-penggunaan Infinitive :
- Setelah kata sifat (adjective)
e.g. I am happy to meet you.
He is sure to come.
We are sorry to hear the news.
It was hard to understand the lesson.
It is necessary to study grammar.
- Setelah kata-kata how, what, when, which, whether. Penggunaan kata-kata tersebut setelah kata kerja ask, forget, remember, know, show, understand, want to know, wonder, think.
e.g. I forget how to open the safe (lemari besi)
I know where to buy fruits cheaply.
We ask him when to leave.
I have to think what to do with the money.
They want to know which grammar book to buy.
- Setelah kata-kata kerja Transitive antara lain :
To advise : menasehati
To allow : mengizinkan
To ask : menyuruh
To compel : memaksa
To encourage : mendorong (memberi semangat)
To forbid : melarang
To force : memaksa
To instruct : memberi perintah
To invite : mengundang
To order : memerintahkan
To persuade : membujuk
To remind : mengingatkan
To tell : mengatakan, menceritakan
To urge : mendesak
To expect : mengharapkan
e.g. He advised me to call in a doctor.
They compeled us to do that work.
I expect her to arrive on time.
She forbade him to come to her house.
He persuaded her to go with him.
She reminded me to drive slowly.
- Setelah kata-kata the first, the second, the last, the only, etc.
e.g. He is always the first to come and the last to leave.
John was the second man to arrive at the meeting.
He was the first man to swim across the Atlantic.
She was the only one to survive in the accident.
Mary was the only to fail the examination.
- Setelah kata benda (Noun)
e.g. I have some letters to write.
Would you like something to drink ?
She can’t go to the party because she doesn’t have any new dress to wear.
Do you have something to eat ?
We have much work to do during this week.
- Setelah kata-kata too & enough (=terlalu & cukup)
e.g. She is too young to understand.
He was too drunk to drive home.
The tea is too hot to drink.
She is old enough to get married.
The man is strong enough to lift the heavy box.
- Setelah Exclamatory Sentence
e.g. How happy to go with her!
How nice to sit by your side !
How interesting to speak with him !
What a pity to waste time for it !
What a mistake to spend so much money on it !
What a foolish to agree to that proposal !
- Infinitive sebagai subject (pokok kalimat)
e.g. To obey the law is everyone’s duty
to save money now is very important.
To hesitate will be fatal.
To do everything well is necessary.
To complain about the matter is useless.
- Infinitive sebagai Passive Verbal (kata kerja pasif)
Structure : to be + Past Participle (V3)
e.g. I don’t want to disturbed wen I am working.
My sister doesn’t like to be asked to clean the room.
The students don’t want to be given much homework during the weekend.
John doesn’t like to be woken up early.
They dislike to be advised.
Digunakan setelah kata-kata kerja appear, happen, pretend, seem. Untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu kejadian sedang berlangsung.
Structure : to be + ING form
e.g. I happened to be passing when the accident took place.
(=Saya kebetulan sedang lewat ketika kecelakaan itu terjadi).
He seems to be living in this area.
She appears to be waiting for someone.
The students pretended to be studying when the teacher entered the class.
Adapun perbedaan antara Continous Infinitive dan Perfect Infinitive yaitu perbuatan yang dinyatakan dengan Perfect Infinitive terjadi lebih awal.
Structure : to have + Past Participle (V3)
e.g. I happened to have driven this kind of car before.
(=Saya kebetulan sudah mengemudikan mobil semacam ini sebelumnya).
He seems to have been a great athlete.
She pretended to have seen it before.
They appeared to have climbed the mountain.
She seemed to have heard about it already.
Beberapa kata kerja yang langsung diikuti oleh Infinitive antara lain :
To agree = setuju
To appear = nampaknya
To arrange = mengatur
To expect = berharap, mengharapkan
To choose = memilih
To decide = memutuskan
To demand = menuntut
To determine = menentukan
To fail = gagal
To forget = lupa
To happen = kebetulan
To hesitate = ragu-ragu
To hope = mengharap
To manage = berhasil
To plan = merencanakan
To promise = berjanji
To refuse = menolak
e.g. We agree to cooperate (bekerja bersama-sama) with them
He decided to change his job.
They demand to pay the bill in cash.
I failed to meet the Director.
She hopes to pass the examination.
John plans to spend his holiday in Bali.
The students promised to obey the new rules.
The man refused to pay his debt.
Mira expects to live in the country.
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